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would require further upgrading to provide transportation fuels. The upgrading can be done with a separate hydrotreating step or a process similar to the Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion course of. In both case, input of hydrogen is required. The production of hydrogen produces low levels of NOx and makes a CO2 stream that could be used to produce the algae cultivation. The committee just isn’t aware of any measured emissions of atmospheric pollutants from algal biofuel feedstock ponds published in the literature. Under normal working situations in open ponds, the cultures are aerobic, and low emissions of unstable natural compounds are expected Rasmussen, 1974; A. Ben-Amotz, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Ltd., private communication on November 1, ; Zuo , . However, macroalgae and microalgae rising in pure marine environments are known to be necessary sources of VOCs, including isoprene and monoterpenes Giese , 1999; Shaw , . Researchers from Texas A&M University currently are screening and quantifying VOCs from all kinds of marine and freshwater algal cultures and algal paste. Three of the species examined are being grown for biofuels in open raceways, open ponds, and closed photobioreactors, with take a look at samples derived from cultures being grown in treated wastewater with CO2 enrichment. In preliminary findings, forty five VOCs have been identified P. Zimba, Texas A&M University, unpublished data. Whether anaerobic denitrification is the only potential pathway for N2O generation in algal cultivation techniques is unclear. Weathers has shown that certain Chlorophyceae in axenic tradition evolve N2O when using nitrite as a nitrogen source. Florez-Leiva discovered that coastal open-pond techniques containing Nannochloris emitted large portions of N2O during senescence. They speculated that oxidation of ammonium by micro organism was the likeliest N2O-generation pathway underneath the observed cardio conditions. Proper administration of the algal cultivation systems, which would forestall senescence of algae and preserve aerobic conditions in ponds, probably would keep N2O emissions to low ranges. Commercial-scale production of algal biofuels would require substantial land space for each facility , and the large-scale deployment of algal biofuels will result in conversion of lands from different present makes use of. Land conversion for ponds, processing amenities, and refineries for many products shall be localized, and potential land conversion for related infrastructure, corresponding to roads and power lines to the services, will be extra diffuse and will contain linear options. This part focuses on land-use change related to algae cultivation, as a end result of change related to feedstock processing or refining amenities isn’t different in kind from that of other liquid fuel sources. As a consequence of population concentrations, water close to human settlements is

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